Verb Tenses Chart

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    Learn English 2Tony Kroos
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    Learn English 3

    Verb Tenses

    1 present

    1.1 perfect

    Used to show that an action has (had/ will have) finished before a definite time or a second action. Rules: open questions, Have you ever worked… connect actions that started in the past to the present, Yes…before action repeated itself for now – exactly when is not important, I have written many reports.. action happened before now at an unspecified time in the past, I have already.. action is now over I have worked….for Key words: already, ever, just, this week, since (+point of time), so far, for, yet, how long

     

    1.1.1 simple

    1.1.1.1 active

    A: He’s washed it. Q: Has he washed it? N: He hasn’t washed it.

     

    1.1.1.2 passive

    A: It’s been washed. Has it been washed? N: It hasn’t been washed.

     

    1.1.2 continuous

    Rules: to explain a situation Sarah has black ink all over. for actions repeated over a period of time Does your department have training sessions here often? Oh yes, …every month to emphasize the length of an action (progressive) and show that it started in the past and has resently (just) stopped or is still true now I’ve been working for over ten hours. Now it’s time for a break. to show that it has been a long time I have been working here for over 2 years. to ask or say how long something has been happening How long have you been working for this company? Key words: how long, since, for

     

    1.1.2.1 active

    A: He’s been washing the car. Q: Has he been washing the car? N: He’s not been washing the car.

     

    1.1.2.2 passive

    Passive not used in English

     

    1.2 continuous

    Not used with abstract verbs (verbs of thought, emotion, possession, sense or auxiliaries Rules: Used for temporary actions going on now. We are having a meeting right now. The action should be important enough to comment on The action must have a beginning and an end! Key Words: this week, now, presently, today, at the moment

     

    1.2.1 active

    A: He’s washing it. Q: Is he washing it? N: He isn’t washing it.

     

    1.2.2 passive

    A: It’s being washed. Q: Is it being washed? N: It’s not being washed.

     

    1.3 simple

    Used for repeated actions or general facts. present facts, repeated actions in the present, timetables Key Words: usually, everyday, often, always, sometimes, everyweek

     

    1.3.1 active

    A: He washes the car. N: He doesn’t wash the car. Q: does he wash the car?

     

    1.3.2 passive

    A: It’s washed. Q: Is it washed? N: It’s not washed.

     

    2 future

    2.1 simple

    Used for repeated actions or general facts. Rules: future facts! repeated actions in the future! consequence of an action! unplanned/spontaneous Key Words: usually, tomorrow, in 2020, when I retire, next week

     

    2.1.1 planned

    2.1.1.1 active

    A: I’m going to wash the car. Q: Are you going to wash the car? N: I’m not going to wash the car.

     

    2.1.1.2 passive

    A: The car is going to be washed. Q: Is the car going to be washed? N: The car isn’t going to be washed.

     

    2.1.2 unplanned

    Subject+will+1st form of the verb

     

    2.1.2.1 active

    A: I’ll (I will) wash the car. Q: Will you wash the car? N: I won’t (will not) wash the car.

     

    2.1.2.2 passive

    A: The car will be washed. Q: Will the car be washed? N: The car won’t be washed.

     

    2.2 continuous

    Rules: action will be going on at a definite time in the future I will be working on the report when he arrives tomorrow. Key Words: by the time.Present Simple (in future time clauses)

     

    2.3 perfect

    Rules: action will be completet befor another action or tim in the future I will have finished the report by the time he arrives tomorrow. Key Words: before+Present Simple (in future time clauses) by this time+ point or tim in the future by the time+Present Simple (in future time clauses) after+Future Perfect (in future time clauses) when+Present Simple (in future time clauses)

     

    2.3.1 simple

    Used for repeated actions or general facts.

     

    2.3.1.1 active

    A: I will have washed the ca 500 times in March. Q: Will you have washed the car 500 times in March? N: I won’t have washed the car 500 times in February.

     

    2.3.1.2 passive

    A: The car will have been washed 500 times in March. Q: Will the car have been washed 500 times in March? N: The car win’t have been washed 500 times in February.

     

    2.3.2 continuous

    A: I will have been washing that car for the years this june. Q: Will you have been washing that car for the years in March? N: I won’t have been washing that car for five years in March.

     

    3 past

    3.1 simple

    Used for repeated actions or general facts. Rules: past facts! repeated action in the past! action is over! definite time in the past! Key Words: usually, yesterday, always, when I was a child, last week, sometimes,

     

    3.1.1 active

    A: He washed it. Q: Did he wash it? N: He didn’t wash it.

     

    3.1.2 passive

    A: It was washed. Q: Was it washed? N: It wasn’t washed.

     

    3.2 continous

    Not used for short dramatic actions Rules: for the past of the Present Progressive(this time last week I was…) to show that two actions were going on at the same time in the past(While we were having a meeting Jane was finishing the report) for an action that was interrupted by another in the past (When John arrived…) to show that an action in the past went on for a longer period of time or was repeated (I was working on the report all afternoon) for indirect speech (She said they were having…) to say that someone was in the middle of doing sth at a certain time in the past Key Words: by the time+present simple, at this time+point of time in the future,while, when+past simple

     

    3.2.1 active

    A: He was washing the car. Q: Was he washing the car? N: He wasn’t washing the car.

     

    3.2.2 passive

    A: It was being washed. Q: Was it being washed? N: It wasn’t being washed.

     

    3.3 perfect

    Used to show that an action has (had/ will have) finished before a definite time or a second action. Rules: to change the order of events (He asked for the report after I had finished it. action was completed before another action or time in the past (I had finished the report by the time he arrived) Key Words: before+past simple, until+point of time in the past, by the time+past simple,when+past simple,after+past perfect

     

    3.3.1 simple

    3.3.1.1 active

    A: He’d (he had) washed it. Q: Had he washed it? N: He hadn’t washed it. Normally part of a bigger sentence,

     

    3.3.1.2 passive

    A: It’d (it had) been washed. Q: Had it been washed? N: It hadn’t been washed.

     

    3.3.2 continuous

    Rules: as the past of the Present Perfect Progressive, PresentPP: John still isn’t here? How long you have been waiting for him? PastPP: How long had you been waiting for John before he arrived? to emphasize (betonen) to show that it was a long time I had been waiting for him over 50 minutes before John showed up. to emphasize a length of an action and show that it started in the past and had been going on before a past action (Past Perfect) He had been working for a company for over twenty years when he retired. Key Words: how long, for, before

     

    3.3.2.1 active

    A: It’d been raining. Q: Had it been raining? N: It hadn’t been raining. Normally part of a bigger sentence.

     

    3.3.2.2 passive

    Passive not used in English

     

    4 conditionals

    4.1 zero(certain)

    A: If it rains, the road becomes wet. Q: If it rains, does the road become wet? N: If it doesn’t rain, people wear sunglasses. If present tense, present tense.

     

    4.2 first(likely)

    A: If it rains, drivers will slow down. Q: If it rains, will drivers slow down? N: If it does not rain, drivers will go faster. If present tense, will/going to

     

    4.3 second(likely)

    A: If it rained, my clothe would be ruined. Q: If it rained, would my clothe be ok? N: If it didn’t rain, my clothe would be ok. If past simple, continuous, would

     

    4.4 third(impossible)

    If it had rained on Friday, it would have ruined the carnival. Q: If it had rained on Friday, would we have gone out? N: If it had not rained on Friday, we would have had a picnic. If past perfect, would have

     

    5 modals

    5.1 present

    5.1.1 will

    5.1.2 shall

    A: I shall wash the car. Q: Shall I wash the car? (Advice) N: I shall not wash the car.

     

    5.1.3 can

    A: I can wash the car. Q: Can you wash the car? N: I can’t wash the car.

     

    5.1.4 may

    A: I may wash the car. Q: May I wash the car? Permission (Erlaubnis) N: I may not wash the car.

     

    5.1.5 must

    A: I must wash the car. Q: Must I wash the car? Permission not to do it? N: I must not wash the car.

     

    5.2 past

    5.2.1 would

    A: I’d (I would) wash the car. Q: Would I wash the car? N: I wouln’t wash the car.

     

    5.2.2 should

    A: I should wash the car. Q: Should I wash the car? (Advice) N: I shouldn’t wash the car.

     

    5.2.3 could

    A: I could wash the car. Q. Could you wash the car? N: I could’t wash the car.

     

    5.2.4 might

    A: I might wash the car. Q: Might I wash the car? Permission N: I might not wash the car.

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