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    Learn English 2Tony Kroos

    Learn English 3

    PRESENT PERFECT (English Grammar)


    PRESENT PERFECT (English Grammar)

    1 1. PP (simple)

    1.1 Unspecified Time Before Now

    1.1.1 1. Experience · I have been to France. (This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times) · I have been to France three times. (You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence) · I have never been to France. (This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France) · I think I have seen that movie before. · He has never traveled by train. · Joan has studied two foreign languages. · A: Have you ever met him? B: No, I have not met him. Examples

    1.1.2 2. Change Over Time · IT has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. · You have grown since the last time I saw you. · The government has become more interested in arts education. · My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

    1.1.3 3. Accomplishments · Man has walked on the Moon. · Our son has learned how to read. · Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. · Scientists have split the atom.

    1.1.4 4. Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting · James has not finished his homework yet. · Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. · Bill has still not arrived. · The rain hasn’t stopped.

    1.1.5 5. Multiple Actions at Different Times · The army has attacked that city five times. · I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester. · We have had many major problems while working on this project. · She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

    1.2 Duration from the past until now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    1.2.1 · I have had a cold for two weeks. · She has been abroad for six months. · Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

    2 2. PP Continuous

    2.1 Duration from the past until now

    2.1.1 · They have been talking for the last hour. · She has been working at that company for three years. · What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? · James has been teaching at the university since June. · We have been waiting here for over two hours! · Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

    2.2 Recently, Lately

    2.2.1 · Recently, I have been feeling really tired. · She has been watching too much television lately. · Have you been exercising lately? · Mary has been feeling a little depressed. · Lisa has not been practicing her English. · What have you been doing?

    3 Non-Continuous Verbs

    3.1 Abstract

    3.1.1 to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist…

    3.2 Emotion

    3.2.1 to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind…

    3.3 Possession

    3.3.1 to possess, to own, to belong…

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